Insight: Fixing the world's metals warehousing: why so long?
By Susan Thomas, Veronica Brown and Josephine Mason
LONDON/NEW YORK (Reuters) - In the mid-1990s the London Metal Exchange was embroiled in a criminal investigation after the discovery that a trader - nicknamed Mr. 5 Percent for the share of the world's copper he reputedly controlled - had spent years manipulating its systems to hoard copper and boost the price.
The episode, when Japanese trade house Sumitomo Corp's head trader Yasuo Hamanaka racked up $2.6 billion in unauthorized losses trying to corner the copper market, plunged the LME into crisis and led to an investigation by the British government.
No criminal charges were ever brought in the UK, but a 1997 probe by former Treasury official Alan Whiting triggered an overhaul of the rule book of the world's biggest metals market and introduced limits on traders' positions.
While lessons were learned from the incident, a review of the Whiting report and other LME reports spanning 17 years suggests opportunities may have been missed to prevent a more recent controversy.
Lawsuits filed by manufacturers in the United States in recent months assert that, enabled by LME rules, banks and traders hoarded metal in warehouses they owned, raising prices. The firms and the LME say the claims are baseless.
In his report Whiting flagged potential conflicts of interest in the LME's global metal warehouse system - the some 700 warehouses certified by the LME to hold metals that meet its specifications.
Whiting highlighted the relationship between warehouse companies and members of the exchange and identified several threats to a well-functioning market - the practice of long-term storage, incentives offered by warehouses to encourage storage, the charges levied by warehouse companies to extract stocks and delays in delivery.
Fast forward to 2013. Continued...