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(Reuters) - Here is a look at the 2013 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, which was awarded on Wednesday jointly to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".
- Chemical reactions occur at lightning speed; electrons jump between atomic nuclei, hidden from the prying eyes of scientists. The 2013 prize winners in chemistry have made it possible to map the mysterious ways of chemistry by using computers. Detailed knowledge of chemical processes makes it possible to optimize catalysts, drugs and solar cells.
- 104 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry have been awarded to 162 individuals from 1901-2012. Frederick Sanger won the prize twice. Linus Pauling is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes, one of which was chemistry in 1954. He was awarded the Peace prize eight years later.
- Only four are women. Two of the four, Marie Curie and Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, won unshared Chemistry Prizes.
- Some famous winners include: The Curies were the most successful "Nobel Prize family". The husband-and-wife partnership of Marie Curie and Pierre Curie were awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. Marie Curie herself won the 1911 chemistry prize. Their daughter Irene Joliot-Curie was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with her husband, Frederic Joliot.
- Adolf Hitler forbade two German winners from receiving the Chemistry prize - Richard Kuhn in 1938 and Adolf Butenandt in 1939.
Sources: Reuters, nobelprize.org. Chambers Biographical Dictionary.
Reporting by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit