France moves towards returning Maori warrior heads

Tue May 4, 2010 7:43am EDT
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By Sophie Hardach

PARIS (Reuters) - French parliament is set to approve on Tuesday the restitution of tattooed, mummified heads of Maori warriors to New Zealand, centuries after they were brought to Europe and displayed as exotic oddities.

The decision is part of a broader effort by some European museums to return artifacts plundered by explorers, giving in to pressure from communities around the world who want to bring home their dead and lay them to rest.

"From a ritual showing the respect of a tribe and family toward their dead, the mummified heads became the object of a particularly barbaric trade due to the curiosity of travellers and European collectors," Parliamentary Relations Minister Henri de Raincourt said when he presented the law last week.

It is the first time that a French law has authorized the return of an entire category of museum items, rather than a specific object, and marks a success for activists campaigning for the restitution of bodies and antiquities.

U.S. and European museums have long resisted such claims, fearing they would lead to the departure of prized mummies and other archaeological treasures.

New Zealand has demanded since the 1980s that the heads be returned. The dispute only turned into a national issue in France when the council in the town of Rouen voted in 2007 to give back a head kept in its Natural History Museum since 1875.

That decision was annulled because it did not follow the formal procedure for handling public artifacts. The new law, which has cross-party support, will apply to more than a dozen Maori heads kept in French museums.

Featuring elaborate tattoos as a sign of strength and courage, heads of Maori warriors were traditionally displayed to their tribes as objects of veneration.   Continued...