LONDON (Reuters) - Here is a look at who has won the Nobel prizes for 2013:
Physiology or Medicine:
James Rothman (United States)
Randy Schekman (United States)
Thomas C. Suedhof (Germany, United States)
For - plotting how cells transfer vital materials such as hormones and brain chemicals to other cells, giving insight into diseases such as Alzheimer‘s, autism and diabetes.
Francois Englert (Belgium)
Peter Higgs (United Kingdom)
For - predicting the existence of the Higgs boson particle that explains how elementary matter attained the mass to form stars and planets.
Martin Karplus (United States, Austria)
Michael Levitt (United States, United Kingdom)
Arieh Warshel (United States, Israel)
For - laying the foundations for development of computers to understand complex chemical processes from the purification of exhaust fumes to photosynthesis, which helps in complex processes such as the development of drugs.
Alice Munro (Canada)
For - being a master of the contemporary short story. Munro is acclaimed for her finely tuned storytelling, which is characterized by clarity and psychological realism. Some critics consider her a Canadian Chekhov.
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
For - its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.
Eugene Fama (United States)
Lars Peter Hansen (United States)
Robert Shiller (United States)
For - their empirical analysis of asset prices.
Reporting by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit